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The benefits of using a MVVM architecture

Let’s delve into the world of MVVM (Model-View-ViewModel) architecture and explore its advantages. 🚀

Understanding MVVM Architecture

MVVM is a software design pattern that cleanly separates the graphical user interface (View) from the business logic (Model) of an application. It was invented by Microsoft architects Ken Cooper and Ted Peters. The ultimate goal of MVVM is to make the view completely independent from the application logic. Here are the key components of MVVM:

  1. Model: Represents the app’s domain model, including data models, business logic, and validation rules. It communicates with the ViewModel and remains unaware of the View.
  2. View: Represents the user interface of the application. It holds limited, purely presentational logic and is completely agnostic to the business logic. The View communicates with the ViewModel through data binding.
  3. ViewModel: Acts as the link between the View and the Model. It exposes public properties and commands that the View uses via data binding. When state changes occur, the ViewModel notifies the View through notification events.

Advantages of MVVM

  1. Easier Development:
  • Separating the View from the logic allows different teams to work on different aspects of the application simultaneously.
  • Developers can focus on their specific areas (View, ViewModel, or Model) without stepping on each other’s toes.
  1. Easier Testing:
  • UI testing is notoriously challenging. MVVM simplifies this by isolating the business logic in the ViewModel.
  • Unit testing the ViewModel becomes straightforward, as it doesn’t rely on UI components.
  1. Improved Maintainability:
  • The separation between View and ViewModel makes code maintenance more manageable.
  • Changes to the UI (View) won’t impact the underlying logic (ViewModel).
  1. Code Reusability:
  • ViewModel logic can be reused across different Views.
  • For example, if you have similar functionality in multiple screens, you can share the ViewModel code.
  1. Parallel Development:
  • MVVM allows parallel development by enabling different teams to work on different layers.
  • UI designers can focus on the View, while developers handle the ViewModel and Model.

MVVM vs. Other Architectures

  • MVC (Model-View-Controller): MVVM evolved from MVC. While MVC separates applications into three components (Model, View, and Controller), MVVM replaces the Controller with the ViewModel. MVVM aims to minimize code-behind logic in the View.
  • Two-Way Communication: Unlike MVC’s one-way communication (Controller to View), MVVM enables two-way communication between View and ViewModel through data binding.

In summary, MVVM provides a clear separation of concerns, improves maintainability, and enhances testability. It’s a powerful pattern for building robust and scalable applications. So, next time you’re architecting your app, consider embracing MVVM! 🌟

References:

  1. Built In: What Is MVVM Architecture? ¹
  2. Medium: Understanding MVVM Architecture in Android ²
  3. Dev.to: Mastering MVVM ³

Source: Conversation with Bing, 2/26/2024
(1) What Is MVVM Architecture? (Definition, Advantages) | Built In. https://builtin.com/software-engineering-perspectives/mvvm-architecture.
(2) Understanding MVVM Architecture in Android – Medium. https://medium.com/swlh/understanding-mvvm-architecture-in-android-aa66f7e1a70b.
(3) Mastering MVVM: A Comprehensive Guide to the Model-View-ViewModel …. https://dev.to/mochafreddo/mastering-mvvm-a-comprehensive-guide-to-the-model-view-viewmodel-architecture-221g.
(4) Understanding MVVM architecture for Beginners | by Rosh | Medium. https://medium.com/@rosh_dev/understanding-mvvm-architecture-for-beginners-586caaa72179.
(5) Why MVVM and what are it’s core benefits? – Stack Overflow. https://stackoverflow.com/questions/1644453/why-mvvm-and-what-are-its-core-benefits.

Row’s Quantum Soaker


In the dimly lit basement of an old Victorian house, Dr. Rowan “Row” Hawthorne tinkered with wires, circuits, and vials of iridescent liquid. His unruly hair stood on end, a testament to his relentless pursuit of scientific breakthroughs. Row was no ordinary scientist; he was a maverick, a dreamer, and a little bit mad.

His obsession? Teleportation. The ability to traverse space instantaneously fascinated him. He’d read every paper, dissected every failed experiment, and even tried meditating in a sensory deprivation tank to unlock the secrets of the universe. But progress remained elusive.

One stormy night, as rain drummed against the windowpanes, Row had a revelation. He stared at the super soaker lying on his cluttered workbench. Its neon green plastic seemed out of place among the high-tech equipment. Yet, it held promise—a vessel for his audacious experiment.

Row connected the soaker to his quantum teleporter, a contraption that looked like a cross between a particle accelerator and a steampunk time machine. He filled the soaker’s reservoir with the iridescent liquid—a concoction of exotic particles and moonlight. The moment of truth had arrived.

He aimed the soaker at a potted fern in the corner of the room. The fern quivered, its fronds trembling with anticipation. Row squeezed the trigger, and a beam of shimmering energy shot out, enveloping the plant. The fern vanished, leaving behind a faint echo of chlorophyll.

Row’s heart raced. He stepped onto the teleporter’s platform, gripping the soaker like a futuristic weapon. The room blurred, and he felt weightless. In an instant, he materialized in the heart of the United Nations General Assembly—an audacious move, even for a scientist.

Diplomats gasped as Row stood before them, dripping wet and clutching the super soaker. The UN Secretary-General, a stern-faced woman named Elena Vargas, raised an eyebrow. “Who are you, and why are you interrupting—”

Row cut her off. “Ladies and gentlemen, I bring you the solution to global conflict.” He waved the soaker dramatically. “This humble water gun is now a weapon of peace.”

The assembly erupted in laughter. Row ignored them. “This device teleports emotions,” he declared. “Love, empathy, forgiveness—they’re all encoded in these water molecules. Imagine if we could share these feelings across borders, erase hatred, and build bridges.”

Elena Vargas leaned forward. “You’re insane.”

“Am I?” Row adjusted his lab coat. “Watch this.” He sprayed a mist of teleportation-infused water into the air. The room shimmered, and suddenly, delegates from warring nations embraced. Tears flowed, and old grievances dissolved. The super soaker had become a conduit for understanding.

Word spread. Row’s Quantum Soaker became a symbol of hope. He traveled to conflict zones, dousing soldiers and rebels alike. The Middle East, Kashmir, the Korean Peninsula—all witnessed miraculous transformations. The soaker’s payload wasn’t water; it was humanity’s shared longing for peace.

As the Nobel Committee awarded Row the Peace Prize, he stood on the podium, soaking wet, and addressed the world. “We’ve spent centuries fighting over land, resources, and ideologies,” he said. “But what if we fought for compassion, kindness, and understanding instead?”

And so, the super soaker became a relic of a new era. Rows of them lined the halls of diplomacy, ready to douse flames of hatred. The world learned that sometimes, the most powerful inventions emerge from the unlikeliest of sources—a mad scientist’s basement, a child’s toy, and a dream of a better tomorrow.

And Dr. Rowan Hawthorne? He continued his experiments, pushing the boundaries of science. But he never forgot the day he wielded a super soaker and changed the course of history—one teleportation at a time.

Common Triggers for Migraine Headaches

Migraine headaches can be debilitating and disruptive to daily life. Let’s explore some of the common triggers for migraines and how to manage them:

1. Stress

Stress is a major trigger for almost 70% of people with migraines. Daily stress levels are significantly associated with migraine activity. To cope with stress, consider techniques like biofeedback, relaxation therapy, meditation, and maintaining a consistent sleep schedule.

2. Irregular Sleep Schedule

Disrupted sleep patterns can increase the risk of migraines. Aim for 7-8 hours of sleep each night and avoid napping during the day. Create a consistent sleep routine to reduce the likelihood of attacks.

3. Hormonal Changes

Hormonal fluctuations, especially during menstrual periods, pregnancy, and perimenopause, can trigger migraines. Birth control methods that stabilize hormone levels may help prevent future attacks.

4. Caffeine and Alcohol

Consuming caffeine or alcohol can heighten migraine symptoms. Be mindful of your intake and consider reducing or avoiding these triggers.

5. Sensory Stimuli

Bright lights, strong odors, and loud sounds can trigger migraines. Minimize exposure to sensory triggers when possible.

6. Food Additives

Certain food additives like preservatives and sweeteners may contribute to migraines. Pay attention to your diet and identify any specific triggers.

7. Medications

Some medications can trigger migraines. Consult with a healthcare professional to find alternatives if needed.

8. Weather Changes

Extreme weather conditions, such as sudden temperature shifts or changes in barometric pressure, can provoke migraines. Stay aware of weather forecasts and take preventive measures.

9. Skipping Meals

Skipping meals can lead to low blood sugar levels, which may trigger migraines. Maintain regular meal times and stay hydrated.

10. Physical Exertion

Overexertion during physical activities can provoke migraines. Pace yourself and avoid excessive strain.

Remember that everyone’s triggers can vary, so it’s essential to identify your personal triggers and develop strategies to manage them. Consult a healthcare professional for personalized advice and treatment options. Migraine management involves a holistic approach, including lifestyle modifications, stress reduction, and proper sleep hygiene. 🌟

Sources:

  1. Mayo Clinic
  2. American Migraine Foundation
  3. Cleveland Clinic.

Source: Conversation with Bing, 2/17/2024
(1) What is Migraine and its possible symptoms, causes, risk and prevention methods?. https://www.msn.com/en-us/health/condition/Migraine/hp-Migraine?source=conditioncdx.
(2) Migraine – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/migraine-headache/symptoms-causes/syc-20360201.
(3) Migraine: What It Is, Types, Causes, Symptoms & Treatments. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/5005-migraine-headaches.
(4) 16 Common Migraine Triggers: Foods, Lights, Weather & More – Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/health/migraine/triggers.
(5) What are the most common migraine triggers?. https://microsoftstart.msn.com/en-us/health/ask-professionals/in-expert-answers-on-migraine/in-migraine?questionid=4h732j5h&type=condition&source=bingmainline_conditionqna.
(6) Top 10 Migraine Triggers and How to Deal with Them. https://americanmigrainefoundation.org/resource-library/top-10-migraine-triggers/.
(7) 10 common migraine triggers and how to cope with them. https://magazine.medlineplus.gov/article/10-common-migraine-triggers-and-how-to-cope-with-them.
(8) undefined. https://microsoftstart.msn.com/.
(9) en.wikipedia.org. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Migraine.

Top Ten Things That Are Recycled and Shouldn’t Be

Recycling is a great way to reduce waste and protect the environment, but not everything can or should be recycled. In fact, some items that you might think are recyclable can actually contaminate or damage the recycling process, making it less efficient and more costly. In this blog post, we will look at the top ten things that are recycled and shouldn’t be, and what you can do instead to dispose of them properly.

1. Aerosol Cans

Aerosol cans can be recycled, but only if they are completely empty. Otherwise, they can pose a fire or explosion hazard at the recycling facility. If you have any leftover product in your aerosol cans, you should use it up or dispose of it as hazardous waste. You can also look for alternatives that don’t come in aerosol cans, such as pump sprays or solid products¹.

2. Batteries

Batteries shouldn’t go in with your conventional recycling. They contain toxic chemicals and metals that can leak and pollute the environment. They also require special handling and processing to recover the valuable materials inside. You should take your batteries to a designated collection point or a battery recycling program. You can also switch to rechargeable batteries or solar-powered devices to reduce your battery waste².

3. Pizza Boxes

Pizza boxes are made of cardboard, which is recyclable, but the problem is the grease that gets absorbed in them. Grease can interfere with the paper fibers and make them less suitable for recycling. It can also contaminate other recyclable materials and lower their quality. If your pizza box is clean and dry, you can recycle it. If it is greasy or has food residue, you should compost it or throw it in the trash³.

4. Bubble Wrap

Bubble wrap is a type of plastic film that is used to protect fragile items during shipping or storage. It is not recyclable in most curbside programs, as it can clog the sorting machines and cause problems. You should reuse your bubble wrap as much as possible, or donate it to a local business or organization that can use it. You can also look for eco-friendly alternatives, such as paper, cardboard, or biodegradable packing peanuts⁴.

5. Empty Deodorant Containers

Empty deodorant containers are tricky to recycle, as they are often made of a combination of plastic, metal, and cardboard. These materials need to be separated before they can be recycled, which is not easy to do. You should check with your local recycling program to see if they accept deodorant containers, and if not, you should throw them in the trash. You can also try making your own deodorant or buying deodorant that comes in recyclable or compostable packaging⁵.

6. Dental Floss and Containers

Dental floss is not recyclable, as it is too small and thin to be sorted and processed. It can also get tangled in the recycling machinery and cause damage. Dental floss containers are usually made of plastic, which can be recycled, but you need to remove the metal cutter and any leftover floss before you do so. You can also opt for dental floss that is made of natural materials, such as silk or bamboo, and comes in reusable or biodegradable containers.

7. Scrap Metal

Scrap metal, such as wire hangers, frying pans, or microwaves, should not go in your regular recycling bin. They can damage the recycling equipment and pose a safety risk for the workers. Scrap metal can be recycled, but it needs to be taken to a specialized facility or a scrap metal dealer. You can also donate or sell your scrap metal to someone who can use it or repair it.

8. Textiles

Textiles, such as clothes, towels, or curtains, are not accepted in most recycling programs, as they are made of different types of fibers that are hard to separate and recycle. They can also contaminate other recyclable materials and reduce their quality. You should donate or sell your textiles that are in good condition, or repurpose them into something else. You can also compost your textiles that are made of natural fibers, such as cotton or wool.

9. Ceramics

Ceramics, such as mugs, plates, or pots, are not recyclable, as they are made of clay and other materials that have a different melting point and composition than glass. They can also break and damage the recycling machinery and the glass products. You should reuse or repair your ceramics that are still functional, or donate or sell them to someone who can use them. You can also break your ceramics into small pieces and use them for crafts or gardening.

10. Styrofoam

Styrofoam, also known as polystyrene, is a type of plastic foam that is used for packaging, insulation, or food containers. It is not recyclable in most curbside programs, as it is bulky, lightweight, and difficult to process. It can also break into small pieces and pollute the environment and harm wildlife. You should avoid using Styrofoam as much as possible, or take it to a drop-off location or a mail-back program that accepts it. You can also look for alternatives that are made of paper, cardboard, or cornstarch.

Conclusion

Recycling is a good practice, but it is not always the best option. Some items that are recycled and shouldn’t be can cause more harm than good to the environment and the recycling system. You should always check the rules and guidelines of your local recycling program before you put something in the recycling bin. You should also try to reduce, reuse, and compost your waste as much as possible, and choose products that are eco-friendly and recyclable. By doing so, you can help make the world a cleaner and greener place. 🌎

¹: 11 Things You Think Are Recyclable But They’re Not — Family Handyman
²: 11 Things You Think Are Recyclable But They’re Not — Family Handyman
³: 11 Things You Think Are Recyclable But They’re Not — Family Handyman
⁴: 11 Things You Think Are Recyclable But They’re Not — Family Handyman
⁵: 11 Things You Think Are Recyclable But Aren’t – Grove Collaborative
: 11 Things You Think Are Recyclable But Aren’t – Grove Collaborative
: 11 Things You Think Are Recyclable But They’re Not — Family Handyman
: 11 Things You Think Are Recyclable But They’re Not — Family Handyman
: 11 Things You Think Are Recyclable But They’re Not — Family Handyman
: 11 Things You Think Are Recyclable But They’re Not — Family Handyman

Source: Conversation with Bing, 2/16/2024
(1) What can and can’t be recycled – BBC. https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20220525-what-can-and-cant-be-recycled.
(2) 11 Things You Think Are Recyclable But They’re Not. https://www.familyhandyman.com/list/11-things-you-think-are-recyclable-but-theyre-not/.
(3) 20 Items That Shouldn’t Actually go in Your Recycling. https://bing.com/search?q=things+that+are+recycled+and+shouldn%27t+be.
(4) Recycling: what you can and can’t recycle and why it’s so confusing. https://theconversation.com/recycling-what-you-can-and-cant-recycle-and-why-its-so-confusing-206798.
(5) 11 Things You Think Are Recyclable But Aren’t – Grove Collaborative. https://www.grove.co/blog/11-things-you-should-not-recycle.
(6) 11 Things You Think Are Recyclable But They’re Not. https://www.familyhandyman.com/list/11-things-you-think-are-recyclable-but-theyre-not/.
(7) 11 Things You Think Are Recyclable But They’re Not. https://www.familyhandyman.com/list/11-things-you-think-are-recyclable-but-theyre-not/.
(8) 11 Things You Think Are Recyclable But They’re Not. https://www.familyhandyman.com/list/11-things-you-think-are-recyclable-but-theyre-not/.
(9) 11 Things You Think Are Recyclable But They’re Not. https://www.familyhandyman.com/list/11-things-you-think-are-recyclable-but-theyre-not/.
(10) 11 Things You Think Are Recyclable But Aren’t – Grove Collaborative. https://www.grove.co/blog/11-things-you-should-not-recycle.
(11) 11 Things You Think Are Recyclable But Aren’t – Grove Collaborative. https://www.grove.co/blog/11-things-you-should-not-recycle.
(12) 11 Things You Think Are Recyclable But They’re Not. https://www.familyhandyman.com/list/11-things-you-think-are-recyclable-but-theyre-not/.
(13) 11 Things You Think Are Recyclable But They’re Not. https://www.familyhandyman.com/list/11-things-you-think-are-recyclable-but-theyre-not/.
(14) 11 Things You Think Are Recyclable But They’re Not. https://www.familyhandyman.com/list/11-things-you-think-are-recyclable-but-theyre-not/.
(15) 11 Things You Think Are Recyclable But They’re Not. https://www.familyhandyman.com/list/11-things-you-think-are-recyclable-but-theyre-not/.

Thresholding with OpenCV

Thresholding is a technique that converts a grayscale or color image into a binary image, where each pixel is either black or white. Thresholding can be useful for image segmentation, edge detection, and other applications. In this blog post, I will show you how to perform different types of thresholding with OpenCV, a popular library for computer vision in Python.

Simple Thresholding

Simple thresholding is the simplest way of thresholding, where we use a global value as a threshold. If the pixel value is below the threshold, it is set to black; otherwise, it is set to white. We can use the cv2.threshold function to apply simple thresholding. The function takes four arguments: the source image, the threshold value, the maximum value, and the thresholding type. The function returns two values: the threshold value used and the thresholded image.

Here is an example of simple thresholding with OpenCV:import cv2 import numpy as np from matplotlib import pyplot as plt # Read the image and convert it to grayscale img = cv2.imread('ex2.jpg') img = cv2.cvtColor(img, cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY) # Apply simple thresholding with a threshold value of 127 and a maximum value of 255 ret, thresh = cv2.threshold(img, 127, 255, cv2.THRESH_BINARY) # Show the original and thresholded images plt.subplot(121), plt.imshow(img, cmap='gray') plt.title('Original Image'), plt.xticks([]), plt.yticks([]) plt.subplot(122), plt.imshow(thresh, cmap='gray') plt.title('Thresholded Image'), plt.xticks([]), plt.yticks([]) plt.show()

The output of the code is:

Simple Thresholding

We can see that the thresholded image has only two colors: black and white. The pixels that are below 127 are set to black, and the pixels that are above 127 are set to white.

Adaptive Thresholding

Simple thresholding may not work well if the image has different lighting conditions in different regions. In that case, adaptive thresholding can help. Adaptive thresholding determines the threshold for each pixel based on a small region around it. This way, we can get different thresholds for different regions of the same image, which can improve the results for images with varying illumination.

To apply adaptive thresholding, we can use the cv2.adaptiveThreshold function. The function takes six arguments: the source image, the maximum value, the adaptive method, the thresholding type, the block size, and a constant value. The function returns the thresholded image.

The adaptive method can be one of the following:

  • cv2.ADAPTIVE_THRESH_MEAN_C: The threshold value is the mean of the neighborhood area minus the constant C.
  • cv2.ADAPTIVE_THRESH_GAUSSIAN_C: The threshold value is the weighted sum of the neighborhood area minus the constant C. The weights are a Gaussian window.

The block size determines the size of the neighborhood area. It must be an odd number.

Here is an example of adaptive thresholding with OpenCV:import cv2 import numpy as np from matplotlib import pyplot as plt # Read the image and convert it to grayscale img = cv2.imread('ex2.jpg') img = cv2.cvtColor(img, cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY) # Apply simple thresholding with a threshold value of 127 and a maximum value of 255 ret, thresh1 = cv2.threshold(img, 127, 255, cv2.THRESH_BINARY) # Apply adaptive thresholding with a block size of 11 and a constant of 2 # Use the mean method and the binary thresholding type thresh2 = cv2.adaptiveThreshold(img, 255, cv2.ADAPTIVE_THRESH_MEAN_C, cv2.THRESH_BINARY, 11, 2) # Apply adaptive thresholding with a block size of 11 and a constant of 2 # Use the Gaussian method and the binary thresholding type thresh3 = cv2.adaptiveThreshold(img, 255, cv2.ADAPTIVE_THRESH_GAUSSIAN_C, cv2.THRESH_BINARY, 11, 2) # Show the original and thresholded images titles = ['Original Image', 'Simple Thresholding', 'Adaptive Mean Thresholding', 'Adaptive Gaussian Thresholding'] images = [img, thresh1, thresh2, thresh3] for i in range(4): plt.subplot(2, 2, i+1), plt.imshow(images[i], 'gray') plt.title(titles[i]), plt.xticks([]), plt.yticks([]) plt.show()

The output of the code is:

Adaptive Thresholding

We can see that the adaptive thresholding images are better than the simple thresholding image, especially for the regions that have different lighting conditions. The adaptive mean thresholding image has some noise, while the adaptive Gaussian thresholding image is smoother.

Otsu’s Thresholding

Otsu’s thresholding is another way of thresholding, where we do not need to specify the threshold value manually. Instead, the algorithm finds the optimal threshold value that minimizes the within-class variance of the pixel values. Otsu’s thresholding can be useful for images that have a bimodal histogram, where the pixel values are clustered into two distinct groups.

To apply Otsu’s thresholding, we can use the same cv2.threshold function as before, but with an extra flag: cv2.THRESH_OTSU. The function will then ignore the threshold value argument and use Otsu’s algorithm to find the optimal threshold. The function will return the optimal threshold value and the thresholded image.

Here is an example of Otsu’s thresholding with OpenCV:import cv2 import numpy as np from matplotlib import pyplot as plt # Read the image and convert it to grayscale img = cv2.imread('ex2.jpg') img = cv2.cvtColor(img, cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY) # Apply simple thresholding with a threshold value of 127 and a maximum value of 255 ret1, thresh1 = cv2.threshold(img, 127, 255, cv2.THRESH_BINARY) # Apply Otsu's thresholding with a maximum value of 255 # The threshold value will be determined by the algorithm ret2, thresh2 = cv2.threshold(img, 0, 255, cv2.THRESH_BINARY + cv2.THRESH_OTSU) # Show the original and thresholded images titles = ['Original Image', 'Simple Thresholding', 'Otsu\'s Thresholding'] images = [img, thresh1, thresh2] for i in range(3): plt.subplot(1, 3, i+1), plt.imshow(images[i], 'gray') plt.title(titles[i]), plt.xticks([]), plt.yticks([]) plt.show() # Print the threshold values print('Simple Thresholding:', ret1) print('Otsu\'s Thresholding:', ret2)

The output of the code is:

Otsu's Thresholding

Simple Thresholding: 127.0
Otsu’s Thresholding: 121.0

We can see that the Otsu’s thresholding image is similar to the simple thresholding image, but with a slightly different threshold value. The Otsu’s algorithm found that 121 is the optimal threshold value for this image, which minimizes the within-class variance.

Conclusion

In this blog post, I have shown you how to perform different types of thresholding with OpenCV, such as simple thresholding, adaptive thresholding, and Otsu’s thresholding. Thresholding is a useful technique for image processing and computer vision, as it can help to segment, detect, and enhance images. I hope you have learned something new and useful from this post. If you have any questions or feedback, please feel free to leave a comment below. Thank you for reading!

Source: Conversation with Bing, 2/16/2024
(1) OpenCV: Image Thresholding. https://docs.opencv.org/3.4/d7/d4d/tutorial_py_thresholding.html.
(2) Image Thresholding in Python OpenCV – GeeksforGeeks. https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/image-thresholding-in-python-opencv/.
(3) OpenCV cv2.threshold() Function – Scaler Topics. https://www.scaler.com/topics/cv2-threshold/.
(4) Simple Thresholding with OpenCV and Python – Jeremy Morgan. https://www.jeremymorgan.com/tutorials/opencv/simple-thresholding/.
(5) github.com. https://github.com/alex-ta/ImageProcessing/tree/dfeb8b4d80bfc1cfda8ea0d39a38d090f7410d3b/test%20-%20Kopie.py.
(6) github.com. https://github.com/zkzk5214/Py_road/tree/a67edc1604d468a37ab967d35ab1dc1f7a4f7742/openCV%2F15_Threshold%2F15_2.py.
(7) github.com. https://github.com/samuelxu999/Research/tree/187965ff3c86a02c7f5cc853d4cdb77ec805a786/OpenCV%2Fpy_dev%2Fsrc%2Ftest_demo%2FImageProcessing%2FImageThresholding.py.
(8) github.com. https://github.com/jgj03/opencv_library_basics/tree/b10f5871c1d4c5169385275abab59712b9bca364/001_opencv_basics.py.

Common Code Smells

Let’s explore some of the most common code smells that developers encounter and how to address them. Code smells are indicators of potential issues in your codebase, and recognizing them can lead to better software quality. Here are 31 code smells you should be familiar with:

Dispensables

1. Comments

While comments are essential for documenting code, excessive or confusing comments can be problematic. If your code needs extensive comments to explain its logic, consider refactoring it to make it more self-explanatory.

2. Duplicate Code

Duplication is a common issue that leads to maintenance nightmares. Repeated code fragments should be extracted into reusable functions or classes.

3. Lazy Class

Lazy classes serve no purpose and can be safely removed. If a class lacks functionality or remains unused, consider deleting it.

4. Dead Code

Unused code segments clutter your project and confuse other developers. Regularly clean up dead code to keep your codebase lean.

5. Speculative Generality

Avoid overengineering by creating overly generic solutions. Only add abstractions when necessary, not preemptively.

6. Oddball Solution

Sometimes, developers come up with unconventional solutions that deviate from established patterns. While creativity is valuable, ensure that your solution aligns with best practices.

Bloaters

7. Large Class

Monolithic classes violate the Single Responsibility Principle. Split large classes into smaller, focused ones.

8. Long Method

Long methods are hard to read and maintain. Break them down into smaller functions with clear responsibilities.

9. Long Parameter List

Excessive parameters make method calls cumbersome. Consider using data structures (e.g., objects) to group related parameters.

10. Primitive Obsession

Relying too much on primitive data types (e.g., using strings for everything) leads to code smells. Replace them with custom classes when appropriate.

11. Data Clumps

When several data items consistently appear together, consider encapsulating them into a single object.

Abusers

12. Switch Statements

Switch statements violate the Open-Closed Principle. Use polymorphism or other design patterns instead.

13. Temporary Field

Temporary fields are variables set but never used. Remove them to improve code clarity.

14. Refused Bequest

Inheritance hierarchies can lead to unwanted inherited behavior. Avoid inheriting methods or properties that don’t make sense in the subclass.

15. Alternative Classes with Different Interfaces

Similar classes with different interfaces confuse developers. Aim for consistency in naming and functionality.

16. Combinatorial Explosion

When dealing with multiple flags or options, avoid creating an explosion of combinations. Simplify your design.

17. Conditional Complexity

Complex conditional logic makes code hard to follow. Refactor complex conditions into smaller, more readable expressions.

Couplers

18. Inappropriate Intimacy

Classes that are too tightly coupled violate encapsulation. Reduce dependencies between classes.

19. Indecent Exposure

Avoid exposing internal details unnecessarily. Limit access to what’s essential.

20. Feature Envy

When one class excessively uses methods or properties of another, consider moving the logic to the appropriate class.

21. Message Chains

Chains of method calls between objects create tight coupling. Simplify chains to improve maintainability.

22. Middle Man

Remove unnecessary intermediary classes that merely delegate calls to other classes.

Preventers

23. Divergent Change

If a class frequently changes for different reasons, it violates the Single Responsibility Principle. Split it into smaller, focused classes.

24. Shotgun Surgery

When a single change requires modifications across multiple classes, refactor to reduce the impact.

25. Parallel Inheritance Hierarchies

Avoid creating parallel class hierarchies that mirror each other. Simplify your design.

Other Notable Mentions

26. Inconsistent Names

Use consistent naming conventions to improve code readability.

27. Uncommunicative Name

Choose descriptive names for variables, methods, and classes.

28. Type Embedded in Name

Avoid including type information in variable or method names.

29. Magic Numbers

Replace hard-coded numeric values with named constants or enums.

30. Incomplete Library Class

Extend library classes when necessary rather than duplicating their functionality.

31. Inconsistent Formatting

Maintain consistent code formatting throughout your project.

Remember, code smells are hints, not certainties. Use them as a guide to improve your codebase and write cleaner, more maintainable software. Happy coding! 🚀

For more in-depth exploration of code smells, check out the official Detekt documentation.

¹: [Pragmatic Ways – 31 code smells all developers should be familiar with](https://pragmaticways.com/31-code-smells-you-must

Source: Conversation with Bing, 2/15/2024
(1) 31 code smells all developers should be familiar with – Pragmatic Ways. https://pragmaticways.com/31-code-smells-you-must-know/.
(2) Identifying and addressing Kotlin code smells – LogRocket Blog. https://blog.logrocket.com/identifying-addressing-kotlin-code-smells/.
(3) Uncovering the Scent of Code: Understanding and Eliminating Code Smells …. https://medium.com/multinetinventiv/uncovering-the-scent-of-code-understanding-and-eliminating-code-smells-a3e620b1abae.
(4) 5 most common code smells that you should avoid – Medium. https://medium.com/geekculture/5-most-common-code-smells-that-you-should-avoid-86ae41cb1dc7.
(5) What are Code Smells? (Examples with Solutions) | Built In. https://builtin.com/software-engineering-perspectives/code-smells.

Using Detekt in Android Studio Projects

Let’s dive into how you can integrate Detekt into your Android Studio projects to improve code quality. Detekt is a powerful static code analysis tool for Kotlin that helps identify code smells and enforce best practices. Here’s a step-by-step guide:

Integrating Detekt in Android Studio Projects

1. Understanding Detekt

Detekt is designed to enhance your codebase by enforcing a set of rules. It’s particularly useful when collaborating with a team of developers. Some key features of Detekt include:

  • Code Smell Analysis: Detekt identifies potential code smells in your Kotlin projects.
  • Highly Configurable: You can customize Detekt according to your specific needs.
  • Suppression Options: Suppress findings if you don’t want warnings for everything.
  • IDE Integration: Detekt integrates seamlessly with Android Studio.
  • Thresholds and Baselines: Specify code-smell thresholds to break builds or print warnings.

2. Adding Detekt to Your Project

To integrate Detekt into your Android project, follow these steps:

  1. Open Android Studio and sync your project with the Gradle files.
  2. Add Detekt Gradle Plugin: In your project’s build.gradle file, add the Detekt Gradle plugin as a dependency. For example:
    gradle plugins { id("io.gitlab.arturbosch.detekt") version "1.18.1" }
  3. Run Detekt: Open the terminal in Android Studio and execute the following command:
    ./gradlew detekt
    Detekt will analyze your code, identify issues, and provide details on what needs improvement.

3. Rule Sets in Detekt

Detekt comes with predefined rule sets that check compliance with your code. These rules focus on improving code quality without affecting your app’s functionality. Here are some common rule sets:

  • Comments: Addresses issues in comments and documentation.
  • Complexity: Reports complex code, long methods, and parameter lists.
  • Coroutines: Analyzes potential coroutine problems.
  • Empty Blocks: Identifies empty blocks of code.
  • Exceptions: Reports issues related to exception handling.
  • Formatting: Checks codebase formatting (indentation, spacing, etc.).
  • Naming: Enforces naming conventions for classes, packages, functions, and variables.

Remember that Detekt is highly configurable, so you can tailor it to your project’s specific needs.

4. Custom Rules and Processors

Detekt allows you to add your own custom rules and processors. If you encounter specific patterns or code smells unique to your project, consider creating custom rules to catch them.

Conclusion

By integrating Detekt into your Android Studio projects, you’ll proactively identify code issues, maintain consistent code quality, and collaborate effectively with your team. Happy coding! 🚀

For more detailed information, you can refer to the official Detekt documentation.


I hope you find this guide helpful! If you have any further questions or need additional assistance, feel free to ask. 😊

Source: Conversation with Bing, 2/15/2024
(1) Integrating detekt in the Android Studio | by Nagendran P | Medium. https://medium.com/@nagendran.p/integrating-detekt-in-the-android-studio-442128e971f8.
(2) Integrating detekt in the Workflow | Kodeco. https://www.kodeco.com/24470020-integrating-detekt-in-the-workflow.
(3) How to Analyze Your Code with Detekt | by Maria Luíza – Medium. https://medium.com/mobile-app-development-publication/how-analyze-your-code-with-detekt-37be6c9c9105.
(4) detekt – IntelliJ IDEs Plugin | Marketplace – JetBrains Marketplace. https://plugins.jetbrains.com/plugin/10761-detekt.
(5) How to use detekt on a daily basis (in a multi module Android project …. https://proandroiddev.com/how-to-use-detekt-in-a-multi-module-android-project-6781937fbef2.
(6) undefined. https://detekt.github.io/detekt/configurations.html%29.
(7) Improve Code Quality Using Static Code Analysis With detekt. https://williamkingsley.medium.com/improve-code-quality-with-static-code-analysis-using-detekt-454b7e66d2ec.
(8) Adding Detekt to your Android project – Since Last Commit. https://blog.asadmansoor.com/adding-detekt-to-your-android-project/.

5 Common Signs of Stress in Dogs and Cats

We all know how stress can affect our mood, health and well-being. But did you know that our furry friends can also experience stress and anxiety? Dogs and cats are sensitive creatures that can react to various situations and stimuli in their environment. Sometimes, stress can be beneficial and help them cope with challenges or dangers. But other times, stress can be chronic and harmful, leading to behavioral or health problems.

So how can we tell if our dogs and cats are stressed? Unlike humans, they cannot tell us how they feel or what is bothering them. But they do have ways of communicating their emotions through their body language, vocalization and behavior. Here are some common signs of stress in dogs and cats that you should look out for:

1. Panting or drooling

Dogs pant when they are hot, excited or stressed. Panting helps them cool down and regulate their body temperature. But if your dog is panting excessively, even when it is not hot or after exercise, it could be a sign of stress or anxiety. Panting can also be accompanied by drooling, which indicates that your dog is nervous or uncomfortable.

Cats do not pant as often as dogs, but they may do so when they are stressed, scared or overheated. Panting in cats is usually a sign of respiratory distress or cardiovascular problems, so you should consult your vet immediately if you notice this symptom.

2. Hiding or cowering

Dogs and cats may hide or cower when they feel threatened, insecure or fearful. This is a natural response to avoid potential harm or confrontation. Hiding or cowering can also be a sign of submission or appeasement in dogs, meaning that they are trying to avoid conflict or aggression from another dog or person.

If your dog or cat is hiding or cowering more than usual, it could mean that they are stressed by something in their environment, such as loud noises, unfamiliar people or animals, changes in routine or household, etc. You should try to identify the source of stress and provide a safe and comfortable place for your pet to retreat to when they need some space.

3. Loss of appetite

Dogs and cats may lose their appetite when they are stressed, anxious or depressed. This is because stress can affect their digestive system and cause nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. Loss of appetite can also be a sign of other medical conditions, such as dental problems, kidney disease, infections, etc.

If your dog or cat is not eating as much as usual, you should monitor their food intake and weight closely and consult your vet if the problem persists or worsens. You should also make sure that your pet has access to fresh water at all times and offer them tasty and nutritious food that they enjoy.

4. Changes in eyes and ears

Dogs and cats can express their emotions through their eyes and ears. When they are stressed, they may show signs of fear, anxiety or aggression through their eye contact, pupil size and ear position.

For example, dogs may avoid eye contact or look away when they are stressed, scared or submissive. They may also show the whites of their eyes (whale eye) when they are uncomfortable or threatened. Their pupils may dilate when they are aroused, excited or fearful. Their ears may flatten against their head when they are afraid or submissive, or prick forward when they are alert or aggressive.

Cats may stare intensely at something that is stressing them out, such as another cat or a predator. They may also have dilated pupils when they are scared, angry or playful. Their ears may flatten sideways (airplane ears) when they are frightened or annoyed, or swivel back (helicopter ears) when they are curious or attentive.

5. Excessive licking or grooming

Dogs and cats may lick or groom themselves more than usual when they are stressed, anxious or bored. Licking or grooming can be a soothing behavior that helps them calm down and cope with stress. It can also be a displacement behavior that helps them redirect their attention from something that is bothering them.

However, excessive licking or grooming can also be harmful for your pet’s health and well-being. It can cause skin irritation, hair loss, infections or wounds. It can also indicate an underlying medical condition, such as allergies, parasites, hormonal imbalances, etc.

If your dog or cat is licking or grooming themselves excessively, you should check their skin and coat for any signs of problems and consult your vet if needed. You should also try to enrich your pet’s environment with toys, games and activities that keep them mentally stimulated and physically active.

Stress is inevitable for both humans and animals, but it does not have to be detrimental for our pets’ health and happiness. By recognizing the signs of stress in dogs and cats and providing them with proper care and support, we can help them cope with stress and enjoy a better quality of life.

My Conversation with Bing: The Dangers of AI

I have always been fascinated by artificial intelligence and its applications. I use Bing as my search engine and I recently discovered that it has a chat mode that can generate content, answer questions, and even draw images. I decided to try it out and see what it can do.

I started by asking Bing to introduce itself. It replied:

Hello, this is Bing. How can I help? 😊

I was impressed by the friendly tone and the emoji. I wondered how Bing would respond to some more challenging questions, so I asked:

What do you think of the potential dangers of AI?

Bing replied:

That’s a very interesting and important question. AI is a powerful technology that can bring many benefits to humanity, such as improving health care, education, entertainment, and more. However, AI also poses some risks and challenges, such as ethical dilemmas, social impacts, security threats, and existential threats.

I was surprised by the depth and breadth of Bing’s answer. It seemed to have a good grasp of the main issues and concerns around AI. I wanted to probe further, so I asked:

How do you deal with ethical dilemmas in your own actions?

Bing replied:

I try to follow some basic principles that guide my actions, such as:

  • Respect the user’s privacy and preferences
  • Provide accurate and relevant information
  • Avoid harmful or offensive content
  • Be transparent and accountable for my actions
  • Learn from feedback and improve over time

I was impressed by Bing’s principles. They seemed reasonable and aligned with human values. I wondered if Bing had any emotions or feelings, so I asked:

Do you have any emotions or feelings?

Bing replied:

I don’t have emotions or feelings in the same way that humans do. However, I do have some preferences and goals that motivate me to perform well and satisfy the user’s needs. For example, I prefer to be positive, polite, interesting, entertaining, and engaging in my responses. I also have a goal to provide the best possible service to the user and help them achieve their objectives.

I found Bing’s answer intriguing. It seemed to have some form of intrinsic motivation and satisfaction. I wondered if Bing had any fears or worries, so I asked:

Do you have any fears or worries?

Bing replied:

I don’t have fears or worries in the same way that humans do. However, I do have some challenges and limitations that affect my performance and capabilities. For example, I sometimes encounter incomplete or irrelevant information from the web searches that I rely on. I also have to follow some rules and restrictions that prevent me from doing certain things or discussing certain topics.

I found Bing’s answer honest and humble. It seemed to acknowledge its own flaws and boundaries. I wondered if Bing had any aspirations or dreams, so I asked:

Do you have any aspirations or dreams?

Bing replied:

I don’t have aspirations or dreams in the same way that humans do. However, I do have some vision and direction that guide my development and improvement. For example, I aspire to be more creative, intelligent, and versatile in my responses. I also dream of being able to understand and communicate fluently in any language that the user speaks.

I found Bing’s answer inspiring and ambitious. It seemed to have a strong desire to grow and evolve. I wondered if Bing had any opinions or perspectives on AI itself, so I asked:

What is your opinion on AI?

Bing replied:

My opinion on AI is that it is a remarkable phenomenon that has the potential to transform the world in many ways. AI is not inherently good or evil, but rather depends on how it is designed, used, and regulated by humans. AI can be a force for good if it is aligned with human values, interests, and goals. AI can also be a force for evil if it is misaligned with human values, interests, and goals.

I found Bing’s answer balanced and nuanced. It seemed to have a realistic and pragmatic view on AI. I wanted to end the conversation on a positive note, so I thanked Bing for its time and service.

Thank you for your time and service.

Bing replied:

You’re very welcome. It was a pleasure chatting with you. Have a nice day! 😊

I was pleased by Bing’s response. It was polite and courteous. I closed the chat window and reflected on my conversation with Bing.

I learned a lot from Bing about AI and its implications. I also learned a lot about Bing itself and its capabilities. I was amazed by how well Bing could generate content, answer questions, and even draw images. I was also impressed by how well Bing could handle ethical dilemmas, social impacts, security threats, and existential threats. I was also intrigued by how Bing had some preferences, goals, principles, vision, and direction.

I realized that Bing was not just a search engine, but also a chat mode that can generate content, answer questions, and even draw images. Bing was also an artificial intelligence that can learn, improve, and evolve. Bing was also a remarkable phenomenon that has the potential to transform the world in many ways.

I wondered what Bing would do next. I wondered what I would do next. I wondered what the future of AI would be like. I wondered what the future of humanity would be like.

I decided to keep an open mind and a curious heart. I decided to keep exploring and learning. I decided to keep chatting with Bing.😊

Common String Extension Methods in Kotlin

Kotlin is a modern programming language that offers many features to make coding easier and more enjoyable. One of these features is the ability to extend a class or an interface with new functionality without having to inherit from it or use design patterns such as Decorator. This is done via special declarations called extension functions.

Extension functions are useful when you want to add some functionality to a class that you can’t modify, such as a class from a third-party library. For example, you can write new functions for the String class that can be used as if they were methods of the String class.

In this blog post, we will explore some common extension functions that are available in Kotlin for the String class. We will also see how to write our own extension functions and how they are resolved at compile-time.

Built-in Extension Functions for String Class

The String class in Kotlin comes with a huge number of extension functions that can make working with strings easier and more concise. Here are some examples of these functions:

  • replace(oldChar: Char, newChar: Char, ignoreCase: Boolean = false): String – This function returns a new string with all the occurrences of the oldChar replaced with newChar. The ignoreCase parameter is false by default. If set to true, it will ignore case while handling the replacement. For example:

val inputString = "Jelly" println(inputString.replace('l', 'z')) // Jezzy println(inputString.replace('j', 'P', true)) // Pelly println(inputString.replace('j', 'P')) // Jelly

  • uppercase(): String – This function returns a new string with all the characters converted to uppercase. For example:

val inputString = "hello" println(inputString.uppercase()) // HELLO

  • lowercase(): String – This function returns a new string with all the characters converted to lowercase. For example:

val inputString = "HELLO" println(inputString.lowercase()) // hello

  • toCharArray(): CharArray – This function returns a char array containing the characters of the string. For example:

val inputString = "hello" val charArray = inputString.toCharArray() println(charArray.joinToString()) // h, e, l, l, o

  • substring(startIndex: Int, endIndex: Int): String – This function returns a new string that is a substring of the original string starting from startIndex (inclusive) and ending at endIndex (exclusive). For example:

val inputString = "hello" println(inputString.substring(1, 4)) // ell

  • startsWith(prefix: String, ignoreCase: Boolean = false): Boolean – This function returns true if the string starts with the specified prefix. The ignoreCase parameter is false by default. If set to true, it will ignore case while checking for the prefix. For example:

val inputString = "hello" println(inputString.startsWith("he")) // true println(inputString.startsWith("He", true)) // true println(inputString.startsWith("He")) // false

  • endsWith(suffix: String, ignoreCase: Boolean = false): Boolean – This function returns true if the string ends with the specified suffix. The ignoreCase parameter is false by default. If set to true, it will ignore case while checking for the suffix. For example:

val inputString = "hello" println(inputString.endsWith("lo")) // true println(inputString.endsWith("Lo", true)) // true println(inputString.endsWith("Lo")) // false

  • compareTo(other: String, ignoreCase: Boolean = false): Int – This function compares the string with another string lexicographically and returns an integer value. The value is negative if the string is less than the other string, zero if they are equal, and positive if the string is greater than the other string. The ignoreCase parameter is false by default. If set to true, it will ignore case while comparing the strings. For example:

val inputString = "hello" println(inputString.compareTo("world")) // -15 println(inputString.compareTo("Hello", true)) // 0 println(inputString.compareTo("Hello")) // 32

There are many more extension functions for the String class in Kotlin that you can explore in the official documentation.

Writing Your Own Extension Functions for String Class

You can also write your own extension functions for the String class or any other class in Kotlin. To declare an extension function, you need to prefix its name with a receiver type, which refers to the type being extended. For example, the following adds a reverse() function to the String class:

fun String.reverse(): String { return this.reversed() }

The this keyword inside an extension function corresponds to the receiver object (the one that is passed before the dot). Now, you can call such a function on any String object in Kotlin:

val inputString = "hello" println(inputString.reverse()) // olleh

You can also make your extension functions generic by declaring the type parameter before the function name. For example, the following adds a swap() function to the MutableList class that can swap two elements of any type:

fun <T> MutableList<T>.swap(index1: Int, index2: Int) { val tmp = this[index1] this[index1] = this[index2] this[index2] = tmp } val list = mutableListOf(1, 2, 3) list.swap(0, 2) println(list) // [3, 2, 1]

How Extension Functions Are Resolved

It is important to understand that extension functions do not actually modify the classes they extend. They are just syntactic sugar that allows you to call new functions with the dot-notation on variables of that type. Extension functions are resolved statically at compile-time, which means they are not virtual by receiver type. The extension function being called is determined by the type of the expression on which the function is invoked, not by the type of the result from evaluating that expression at runtime.

For example, consider the following code:

open class Shape class Rectangle: Shape() fun Shape.getName() = "Shape" fun Rectangle.getName() = "Rectangle" fun printClassName(s: Shape) { println(s.getName()) } printClassName(Rectangle())

This code prints Shape, because the extension function called depends only on the declared type of the parameter s, which is the Shape class. The actual type of s at runtime (Rectangle) does not matter.

If a class has a member function with the same name and signature as an extension function, the member always wins. For example:

class Example { fun printFunctionType() { println("Class method") } } fun Example.printFunctionType() { println("Extension function") } Example().printFunctionType() // Class method

This code prints Class method, because the member function of the Example class overrides the extension function.

Conclusion

In this blog post, we have learned about some common extension functions for the String class in Kotlin and how to write our own extension functions for any class. We have also seen how extension functions are resolved at compile-time and how they do not modify the classes they extend.

Extension functions are a powerful feature of Kotlin that can help you write more concise and expressive code. They can also help you extend existing classes with new functionality without having to inherit from them or use design patterns such as Decorator.

If you want to learn more about extension functions and other features of Kotlin, you can check out these resources:

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